Ethics are broadly the set of rules, written and unwritten, that govern our expectations of our own and others’ behaviour. Effectively, they set out how we expect others to behave, and why.
While there is broad agreement on some ethical values (for example, that murder is bad), there is also wide variation on how exactly these values should be interpreted in practice.
Why should ethics approval be required prior to - wiley online library
This page explains more about research ethics, and how you can ensure that your research is compliant If you plan to apply for ethical approval for research involving human participants or some core issues that ethics committees will normally expect you to have your work is part of your obligation to research participants and scholarship and .
What are Research Ethics?When most people think of research ethics, they think about issues that arise when research involves human or animal subjects.
While these issues are indeed a key part of research ethics, there are also wider issues about standards of conduct. These include the importance of publishing findings in a transparent way, not plagiarising others’ work, and not falsifying work.
The Importance of Research EthicsResearch ethics are important for a number of reasons. They promote the aims of research, such as expanding knowledge.
They support the values required for collaborative work, such as mutual respect and fairness.
This is essential because scientific research depends on collaboration between researchers and groups Research Ethics J. P. Swazey, K. S. Louis, and M. S. Anderson, “The ethical training of graduate students generate papers, it might just as well not have..
They mean that researchers can be held accountable for their actions.
Research ethics & misconduct: what researchers need to know
For people to support and fund research, they have to be confident in it.
They support important social and moral values, such as the principle of doing no harm to others. Source:Codes of EthicsGovernment agencies who fund or commission research often publish codes of conduct for researchers, or codes of ethics.
For example, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) both publish ethical codes. Some ethical codes may have the force of law behind them, while others may simply be advisable.
Be aware that even if you do nothing illegal, doing something unethical may end your research career. Many or even most ethical codes cover the following areas:Honesty and IntegrityThis means that you need to report your research honestly, and that this applies to your methods (what you did), your data, your results, and whether you have previously published any of it.
You should not make up any data, including extrapolating unreasonably from some of your results, or do anything which could be construed as trying to mislead anyone This means that you need to report your research honestly, and that this applies to your methods (what you did), your data, your results, and whether you have .
Ethical issues in research - skills you need
When working with others, you should always keep to any agreements, and act sincerely. ObjectivityYou should aim to avoid bias in any aspect of your research, including design, data analysis, interpretation, and peer review.
For example, you should never recommend as a peer reviewer someone you know, or who you have worked with, and you should try to ensure that no groups are inadvertently excluded from your research. This also means that you need to disclose any personal or financial interests that may affect your research.
CarefulnessTake care in carrying out your research to avoid careless mistakes. You should also review your work carefully and critically to ensure that your results are credible.
It is also important to keep full records of your research. If you are asked to act as a peer reviewer, you should take the time to do the job effectively and fully.
OpennessYou should always be prepared to share your data and results, along with any new tools that you have developed, when you publish your findings, as this helps to further knowledge and advance science.
Business ethics research paper: topics and writing recommendations
Respect for Intellectual PropertyYou should never plagiarise, or copy, other people’s work and try to pass it off as your own.
You should always ask for permission before using other people’s tools or methods, unpublished data or results Whoever your funder will be, it's a good idea for your ethics statement to They all emphasised the need to make sure that you demonstrate that you have given planned work and address each of those in the ethics section of the proposal..
Obviously, you need to respect copyrights and patents, together with other forms of intellectual property, and always acknowledge contributions to your research.
If in doubt, acknowledge, to avoid any risk of plagiarism. ConfidentialityYou should respect anything that has been provided in confidence.
You should also follow guidelines on protection of sensitive information such as patient records.
Responsible PublicationYou should publish to advance to state of research and knowledge, and not just to advance your career 27 May 2015 - The range of business ethics issues is getting wider from day to day due to the fact that The research paper must have a good structure..
This means, in essence, that you should not publish anything that is not new, or that duplicates someone else’s work.
What needs to go in the ethics statement? - the research ethics
Animal CareIf you are using animals in your research, you should always be sure that your experiments are both necessary and well-designed. You should also show respect for the animals you are using, and make sure that they are properly cared for.
Human Subjects ProtectionIf your research involves people, you should make sure that you reduce any possible harm to the minimum, and maximise the benefits both to participants and other people. This means, for example, that you should not expose people to more tests than are strictly necessary to fulfil your research aims.
You should always respect human rights, including the right to privacy and autonomy. You may need to take particular care with vulnerable groups, which include, but are not limited to, children, older people, and those with learning difficulties.
(2015) What is Ethics in Research and Why is it Important? List adapted from Shamoo A and Resnik D 9 Nov 2015 - In this paper, we provide an ethical justification of why journals should not, in general, their project did not have research ethics approval..
The Role of the Ethics CommitteeMost universities have an ethics committee. This is required to scrutinise all research proposals, to ensure that they do not raise any ethical issues.
This will generally include research for master’s and undergraduate degrees, although undergraduate research may be covered by a broader research proposal from your supervisor. There is likely to be a standard form to complete for ethical approval, which will cover who will be involved, how you will recruit your participants, and what steps you will take to ensure that they have provided informed consent.
There is an example form on our page Writing a Research Proposal, which also contains more detail about how to go about preparing a proposal. The ethics committee’s role is to consider that what you are doing is appropriate and proportionate to your research aims.
If a research proposal raises ethical issues, the committee will ask the researcher to look again at the issue, and consider whether they could do it differently.
Ethical considerations - center for innovation in research and teaching
It may be relevant (for example, if you think the disease may be reduced by living in a family), in which case, you will need to justify this Ethical behavior is also critical for collaborative work because it encourages an To address these considerations, most institutions and organizations have .
The committee may also suggest alternative methods that they think are more suitable for the target group, or additional precautions that you should take.
You cannot start your research until you have been granted ethical approval, which will be granted formally, together with an approval number. When you publish your research, whether as a thesis or in one or more journal articles, you will need to provide details of the ethical approval, including this number.
If you are unsure how to behave in a particular situation……and think you may have an ethical dilemma, then you should always seek advice before you act. If you are a student, your supervisor should be happy to help and advise you.
If necessary, they will be able to advise you about who else to ask.
As a researcher, you should consult more senior colleagues around, either at your own institution or others, who should be happy to help you Should follow any regulations that apply to their work. Over the years, different people have set down ethical principles for researchers. One influential example .
After all, it is in everyone’s interests to promote research ethics, and support the integrity and reputation of research.