Discussion of scientific concepts being studied through the lab Background information about the concepts or previous research in the topic The objective for the lab The lab’s purpose Your reasons for the hypothesis(es) Before you writeObjectiveAnswers what main action(s) is being done in the lab. Example: “The objective of this experiment was to determine if lowered pH levels in water induce greater fruit fly respiratory movements.
”PurposeAnswers what you expect to gain from the lab (the learning you hope to achieve) Best website to order an sociology laboratory report double spaced College How to purchase a sociology laboratory report Premium 1 hour double spaced..
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”HypothesisAnswers what you expect to find in your experiments. Example: “We hypothesize that, under uniformly cool temperatures, fruit flies in lower pH water will display a greater number of respiratory movements.
” While you write Explain the scientific concepts What is the lab about? What problem is being investigated, and why is the problem important to investigate? What scientific concepts are you meant to be learning? Provide background information What is the history behind the problem you are studying? What is the theory behind the problem or subject being studied? What has other research said about this problem?Earlier in this guide we discussed pre-lab research, which covers evaluating, organizing, and integrating research in your report. Be sure to go back through previous sections if you need help understanding these areas.
Present the objective for the lab What do you need to accomplish? What will you test, measure, analyze and/or determine?Discuss the lab’s purposeWhat do you want to understand by completing this experiment? What questions do you want to answer? What are the lab’s activities designed to teach you?Propose a hypothesis What results do you anticipate for this experiment? Usually a hypothesis is written to show the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Here’s a basic template for a hypothesis:"If A (independent variable) is related to B (dependent variable) in a particular way (X), then.
"Give reasons for your hypothesis Why do you expect the result you mentioned? What do you already know that leads you to guess this outcome? Why does the result you suggested make sense logically?What Should It Look Like?Here we provide a brief breakdown of the Do's and Don'ts of what your Introduction should look like.
Do'sInclude background information, the lab’s objectives and purpose, your hypothesis, and reasons for that hypothesis.
Use transition words and phrases to connect each point you include Field reports are also an opportunity to obtain evidence through methods of observing professional practice that When writing a field report you need to: Animal Behavior Lab. “Photographs within the Sociological Research Process..
Don’tsDon't include details such as the methods, materials, or results, which will be discussed in later sections.
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Interactive Activity Download PDFDownload the Introduction section of the complete Lab Report annotated example that you can review and print. Preview: Interactive VersionDescriptions of the materials and equipment you usedDescriptions of the procedures you followedDescriptions of your methods for analyzing the data you collected Before you write Organize your lab notes Earlier in this guide, you learned strategies for organizing.
Make a plan for what you will discuss first, second, and so forth. Find or create sketches of more complex equipment Sometimes a picture is needed for a reader to understand the complex equipment being described.
Place these images as figures inside the text of the paper. See the Results section of the lab report below for more information on formatting figures and other visuals.
While you write Provide an account of your experiment. Think of the methods and materials section as a historical record.
You want to tell a story of your lab work, from beginning to end: what steps you followed and what materials you used in each stage of the lab. Use transition words and phrases to help your readers follow the story.
Since this section should accurately reflect what you did in the experiment, make sure that you describe the materials you used and the methods you followed, even if these were slightly different from your lab manual. Be detailed but efficient Good historical documents give plenty of detail.
To keep your methods and materials section focused, here are two good rules to follow: Provide only those details needed for recreating the experiment.
Avoid writing lengthy descriptions of procedures that most readers would be familiar with 13 Jan 2016 - I'll return to the use of laboratory and field experiments in sociology in order to measure the effect they have on the dependent variable..
What Should It Look Like?Here we provide a brief breakdown of the Do's and Don'ts of what your Methods and Materials should look like. Do'sWrite in paragraph form, and include descriptions of your equipment, the procedures you followed, and methods of your analysis.
Describe changes made to the experiment that differ from the original lab report, and pay attention to detail. Don’tsDon't write about your materials separately from your methods, or include lengthy descriptions of procedures or equipment that most of your readers won't be familiar with.
Example: Annotated Lab ReportMethods and Materials section of your paper.
Interactive Activity Download PDFDownload the Methods and Materials section of the complete Lab Report annotated example that you can review and print. Preview: Interactive VersionA summary of your overall findings in 1-2 sentences Visuals (graphs, tables, figures) that represent your observations/analyses Written introductions for each visual describing relevant observations, both quantitative and qualitative Before you write Understand the difference between raw data and information When presenting your results, you don’t simply present the data unprocessed to your readers.
Rather, you present the trends and relationships that data reveal. In other words, you report the information you have gained by analyzing the data.
To understand this difference, see the following explanations and examples. Important Note: Some instructors may ask you to include the raw data in the results section.
At other times, you will be asked to place the raw data you have in the appendix at the end of the report.
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Often, the data are useless until the facts are processed and organized.
Example: In a study of student test score trends in high school math, students’ individual scores are the raw data. What is information?When you analyze data—process, organize, and present the facts in a way that is useful—then you have created information.
Example: Information gained from the raw data might include the following:a high school’s average scoresaverage scores for women across the provinceaverage scores for men across the province Determine what kind of data you have Knowing what kind of data you have will help you determine the best way to present that data visually. Quantitative dataQualitative datameasures of types -- elements that cannot be expressed in numbers (e.
, gender, socioeconomic status, religious preference, etc.
Choose what type of visual is best for each set of data Certain data is best represented with specific types of visuals.
To determine what visual to use, try using the following steps:Ask yourself the following questions:Are the independent and dependent variables qualitative or quantitative? How many data points do you need to show? Are you working with more than one independent variable? In your visual, do you need to show the statistical distribution of the data? How important is it that your readers see individual values? How important is it that your readers see and understand the overall trend? Consider common reasons for using tables and graphs:Tables work best when the readerrequires precise valuesGraphs work best when the writerwants to show a relationship among many valuesIf you’re having trouble deciding what kind of graph or table to use, ask your instructor or consult your school’s writing centre. Determine the order in which you will present your results Consider the purpose of your lab as well as who you expect to read your report.
There is more than one way to present your results.
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You can find guidelines for tables and figures in style guides (e Several of the Technical Reports have been published as journal articles or book chapters. later as “second-order expectations” (Moore 1985; Fisek, Berger and Moore 2002). “Three Tasks for Use in Laboratory Small-Group Experiments..
The following procedures are commonly expected for visuals.
In general, tables are numbered independently from figures.
So, you might have both a Table 1 and a Figure 1. For graphsyou should also provide a legend to help your reader understand the informationgenerally the independent variable on the horizontal (x) axis and the dependent variable on the vertical (y) axisFor tablesorganize the data so that the reader reads down through a columneach column and row should be clearly labeled.
In these labels, make sure you include the unit of measurement that was used While you write Summarize, in writing, your overall findings Think of the first paragraph in the results section as an extended topic sentence. What is this section about? What main ideas will the reader learn? In the rest of the paragraph, develop a few sentences that present your overall findings.
In these sentences, explain the relationship between the variables shown in your visuals. Present each finding separately describe your findings in writingpresent a visual that represents those findingsTo present each finding effectively, follow these steps:Introduce the visual by referring to its number (e.
Direct readers to notice what is important to see in the visual (a trend? a particular relationship?).
Remember that visuals don’t speak for themselves. Readers need to understand why the visuals are there and how to read them.
Show readers the calculations you made based on the data. You don’t need to include every calculation for each value.
What Should It Look Like?Here we provide a brief breakdown of the Do's and Don'ts of what your Results should look like. Do'sSummarize your overall results and in writing, describe the important point of each visual.
Present data in formats that show important relationships and precisely label each variable in a visual Where to order a sociology lab report 6 hours double spaced College Junior CBE Need to purchase an sociology lab report University Academic US Letter .
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Don't include interpretations or draw conclusions in your results section. Example: Annotated Lab ReportResults section of your paper.
Interactive Activity Download PDFDownload the Results section of the complete Lab Report annotated example that you can review and print. Preview: Interactive VersionA summary of your findings An explanation of your findings A comparison of your results with previous research and theories A discussion of the weaknesses and limitations of your experiment An analysis of the significance of your results Recommendations for the future Understand the difference between the results and your discussion In the results section, you presented trends and relationships in the data.
In the discussion section, you want to take your findings one step further. What do these trends and relationships mean? Take a look at the following examples to compare what it means to report your results and to interpret those results:ResultsWhat it means: Reporting your findings Example: The majority of the respondents (75%) said that they had to wait for more than half an hour before connecting with a customer support representative.
DiscussionWhat it means: Interpreting your resultsExample The finding indicates that the number of on-call representatives at the Rogers service centre is inadequate. While you write Summarize your findings How would you summarize your findings in 1-2 sentences? Do these findings support or contradict the hypotheses? Were there any unexpected findings? Explain your results How do you explain why you got the particular results you did? Are there multiple explanations for these results? How do you make sense of any contradictory explanations? Compare your results Discuss the experiment’s limitations/weaknesses Were problems encountered during your experiment and if so, what were they? How could these problems be rectified? How do limitations/weaknesses affect the validity of the experiment and your interpretation?While considering these questions, take a look at the following worksheet about common experimental errors.
Worksheet: Types of Experimental ErrorsUse this helpful worksheet for your Lab Report. What do I need to include? Appendices provide additional, supplementary material at the end of a report.
In lab reports, this material usually includes the following items:Detailed drawings of equipment used in the labSource information for hard-to-find material (e. , full, generic names of chemicals that you abbreviated in the report) Detailed, extended calculations presented in the Methods sectionRaw data that have not been presented in a table or figure (e. , a long table of data that you have represented as a succinct graph in the report)Drawings or photographs that help explain the resultsNotes from your lab sessionFor social science studies, full master copies of questionnaires and instructions for participants Get organized Usually, each distinct item has its own appendix, titled separately. These appendices are organized in the order in which the items are discussed in the paper.
So, an appendix related to your methods would be placed earlier than an appendix providing raw data from your results. What should it look like? Here we provide a brief breakdown of the Do's and Don'ts of what your References should look like.
Do'sDetermine early what information is not necessary to place inside your report. Arrange items in the order in which they are discussed, and place each item in a separate appendix, on a separate page.
Don’ts Example: Annotated Lab ReportReferences section of your paper. Interactive Activity Download PDFDownload the Appendix section of the complete Lab Report annotated example that you can review and print.